您的瀏覽器不支援JavaScript語法,但是並不影響您獲取本網站的內容。
:::
字級: 小字級 中字級 大字級 | 分享:

當代情境中的巫師與儀式展演研究群

簡介

「巫師」(shaman)身為人間與神靈界的溝通者,是人類學長久以來關注的研究議題。在當代情境中,我們發現巫師並沒有消失,並於許多族群與社區內透過不同形式與內涵之儀式展演,繼續展現活力。近期一些文獻反映出研究者持續地對「巫師」現象作多面向的探討,例如關於巫師定義與比較議題的再思索(Kehoe 2000; MacDonald 2002; Znamen編2004);現代社會中新巫師(neo-shamans)的發展(Wallis 2003; Blain and Wallis 2006);巫師普同的與進化的心理學(Winkelman 2002);與衝突、侵略和宇宙觀相連結的巫師活動(Strathern and Stewart 2004; Whitehead 2002; Whitehead and Wright編 2004);針對巫師儀式語言,特別是吟唱語言的變形與反射之分析(Severi 2002)等。

「當代情境中的巫師與儀式展演」研究群將以台灣原住民社會普遍存在,且於當代情境中仍發揮作用的巫師及其儀式展演為主要研究目標。近年來有一些研究者致力於此領域的開拓,已累積了不少研究成果,例如原英子2000/2005;巴奈‧母路2003;Cauquelin 2004;劉璧榛2004, 2006;胡台麗1999,2005;陳文德2004;楊淑媛 2006等。我們擬透過研究群的運作,繼續探索以下的議題:

──外來政權、宗教(包括西方基督宗教與漢人民間信仰)、以及晚近本土文化復振運動對原住民巫師與祭儀之影響。巫師角色與儀式展演內涵經過那些調整與轉化?產生怎樣的文化混融現象?

──區辨巫師的「展演」性質和展演的社會文化情境,並探討其變遷過程與原因,同時在歷史時空中審視不同族群與聚落中經濟、文化、連同巫師與儀式展演之互動和採借關係,比較其異同。

──當代的巫師傳承與展演中保存了多少傳統質素?透過儀式動作、器物與誦唸吟唱語言的詳盡紀錄分析,以增加對該文化核心理念與情感之理解,並提供文化傳承與創新的養份。

──探討巫師與儀式展演中性別角色的區分與意涵。例如,台灣原住民社會中排灣族、魯凱族與噶瑪蘭族的巫師必定為女性;卑南族巫師以女性為原則,但偶有男性;阿美族男女皆可,但當代巫師大多為女性;鄒族男女皆可,布農族為男性等。這些差別有何文化意義?如何影響儀式的展演與轉型?

──將台灣地區性的例證置於跨文化的大架構中作探索,與台灣以外的地區作比較,以顯現當代情境中台灣原住民諸族的巫師與儀式展演之特色與面臨的挑戰。

我們擬邀集對此議題有興趣的研究者定期聚會,研讀相關文獻、邀請專家演講、舉辦workshop、研討會與大師講座等,逐步形成並完成個人的研究計畫。同時每年辦4~5次小型討論會和田野觀摩採集,共同作文獻閱讀討論、發展新的研究題目與出版專書等。第一年2007迄今的研究群執行情形請參見下節簡報。此外,本研究群每年繼續進行研究群網站的建置與維護,網址如下:

(http://www.ioe.sinica.edu.tw/Content/Messages/Msg_content.aspx?SiteID=530167135246736660&MenuID=530207131055321437&FID=530207131011365177)與較易互動的部落格(http://shamanperformance.blogspot.tw/)與發展中的Facebook。

成立時間

2007年

成員

召集人:胡台麗、劉璧榛

參與成員:陳文德、黃宣衛、賀大衛(David Holm)、童春發、王梅霞、巴奈.母路、巴代(林二郎)、高雅寧、滿田彌生、海樹兒.犮剌拉菲、尤巴斯.瓦旦、雅衛依.撒韻、簡文敏、巫化‧巴阿立佑司、林娜鈴、包惠玲、顏芳姿、黃淑莉。

【English Summary】

Shamans and Ritual Performances in Contemporary Contexts Research Group

The classic topic of shamanism has recently been reconsidered from a number of perspectives. These perspectives include general definitional and comparative issues (Kehoe 2000; MacDonald 2002; Znamenski ed. 2004); universalist and evolutionary considerations (Winkelman 2002); neo-shamanism and shamanic practices in the contemporary world (Blain and Wallis 2006); and aspects of shamanic activities connected with conflict, aggression, and cosmology (Strathern and Stewart 2004; Whitehead, 2002; Whitehead and Wright 2004 eds.).

In the approach of this research group emphasis will be placed on the central performative healing and mediating roles of shamans among the indigenous peoples of Taiwan and on the idea of performance in relation to shamanic practices in general; and a special Reading List on performance and performativity in ritual will be developed during 2007 for collective use by this research group's members. This literature will then be related back to the information on shamanic practices in the Taiwan context and used also to guide future field research.

The importance of ritual experts known in the ethnographic literature as shamans is well-known for the Austronesian-speaking groups in Taiwan, parts of New Guinea and South-East Asia, and many other areas of the world. These experts, female or male, play leading roles as healers, diviners, and mediators in processes of conflict and the establishment of political power in local contexts. In the case of the Taiwanese indigenous peoples, shamans (and issues surrounding their practices) have become significant in two particular ways: one through historical conflicts with the teachings of Christian missionaries, especially at the times of conversion to Christianity; and second, more recently through their prominence in movements for "cultural revival" and the re-appropriation of indigenous cultural identity. Shamans are also relevant figures in the constellation of gender relations and local political power in their communities; and they may continue to play roles as healers in the treatment of illnesses . As well, there is some indication that charismatic Christian Protestant healers may take on positions that approximate those previously held by shamans in some cases, showing how the shamanic concept can transform itself over time or enter into relations of a hybrid kind with other traditions. By focusing on Shamanic Performances, past and present, and examining how these relate to wider processes of change, adaptation, or conflict within the society at large, we plan to bring together the study of ideas and practices and to understand the flexible power that is generated through shamanic activities. The phenomenon of shamanic actions and their contexts of performance will be seen as an index of a number of vital social and cultural processes at work in contemporary indigenous communities.

Further Points that this Research Group will be considering include: -In relation to the indigenous peoples of Taiwan we will need to define the concept of performance to fit the local contexts. This makes necessary the collaboration with scholars working on different Aboriginal people (e.g., Paiwan, Amis, Puyuma, Kavalan, Atayal, and Bunun) and able to provide our group with detailed relevant ethnography. -Before their encounter with Han settlers, these shamanic societies were not closed to one another. Economic and cultural exchanges were frequent. Thus, it is first important to pay attention to the way these societies were interconnected and to the cultural results and implications of these exchanges. Then, we have to focus on the specific historical conditions within which each of these societies encountered Outsiders in general, including the Han settlers and the Christian missionaries. We also have to identify the influence of these specific historical contexts on each society's social changes. -All of the societies mentioned above have (or had) female shaman groups who are / were central to their social organization, and this is rare in comparative terms around the world. Nowadays, some of these societies still exclude men totally (e.g., Kavalan, Paiwan and Rukai), or with rare exceptions, from the position of shaman (e.g., Puyuma and Amis). This situation is not simply a result of the social changes involved by the integration of these societies in modern state economies and political systems as has been observed in other parts of the world. This is why the role played by women as shamans has to retain our attention in order to enable us to achieve a better understanding of the importance of their ritual practices in the survival of their groups in the contemporary social context. In analyzing this point it is important to recognize also that women's activities are set into an overall gendered field of relationships, including men as well as women in the reproduction or transformation of social relations. This dynamic of gendered relations is one that can be explored further as the work of the Research Group develops. -Complex historical / political impacts of successive waves of outside colonizers on the lives of the indigenous peoples have constantly to be taken into account in assessing contemporary practices of a shamanic kind. Because of the complex interrelations between Outsiders and the indigenous populations, hybrid practices containing elements from different societies have developed in the realm of shamanic activity. In addition, there are differences between the different indigenous groups in terms of fixity or fluidity of their shamanic practices, which we will aim to study comparatively. One theme that is important throughout, however, is the significance of dreams. A detailed study of the ritual chants in various shamanic traditions will be used in order to elucidate elements of continuity or change from the past.

Conveners: Hu Tai-Li; Liu Pi-chen

TOP