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通信/兼任研究人員 - 陳奕麟(Chun, Allen)

陳奕麟(Chun, Allen)照片

陳奕麟(Chun, Allen)

職稱:兼任研究員
研究室:R2617
在本所任職期間:1982.12~2019.1 (本所退休)
電話:26523460
研究概述

近年來在大陸所誕生的所謂中國特色的資本主義在某程度上是香港和台灣大企業投資的資本主義所延伸的結果,但其對中國國族主義的與政治共謀、掛勾關係的影響在1997後的香港(和回歸後的澳門)最明顯。最近所引起爭論的服貿協議其實對未來台灣而言帶來同樣的危機。大中國的資本主義危機到底是甚麼?文化抗爭能扮演何批判、實際角色?筆者認為問題應該分為不同層面來加以分析:大中國體系中資本主義與國族主義所發生的共謀關係,香港後殖民主義的歷史弔詭,台灣的族群本土意識的政治矛盾,澳門的賭博資本主義以及文化批判理論的新挑戰。雖然香港和台灣近年來呈現類似的文化抗爭意識,但其背後的社會政治脈絡有所不同,因此其能實行的具體政治效果也不同。筆者強調我們所需要的是新的認同政治策略;其應該歸根於具體地方地理政治的深層理解而形塑的。這個geopragmatics其實表徵一種開放性、多面的政治實踐態度,同時代表對後殖民、批判理論的反思。

有別於一般的台、港、澳三地研究,本研究並非只比較三地的某些面向,事實上,基於三地的政治和歷史脈絡不盡相同,硬要比較其實沒啥意思。我們反而會以三地同時面對的「大中國」威脅和危機作起點,一方面追溯此威脅形成的脈絡,一方面則提出面對甚或抵抗此危機的策略。本文將指出,在「大中國」名義的幌子下,台、港、澳三地似乎出現某種弔詭的「文化認同」,然而,顯而易見,如此所謂的「認同政治」,其實被中國的經濟和政治策略所綁架,跟中國特色的資本主義關係密切。也就是說,所謂的「認同」其實是虛構的。問題是,我們該從什麼切入點去研究以上問題?基於三地的政治脈絡不盡相同,台灣則會集中在族群本土意識的政治矛盾上,還有媒體和企業的問題上,指出其在經濟的大前提下的「被動」和「沉默」的位置;香港則會以近十年的社會運動作切入點,一方面說明人民對中央的鬥爭和對立姿態,一方面則指出從社運中突顯的跟中國接軌的大型經濟項目;至於澳門,重點則會放在其成為賭博的資本主義天堂的情況上。

與此同時,我亦會同時從「後殖民」理論來分析現時台、港、澳三地在「大中國」時代下的狀態。本研究將同時指出,「後殖民」這個概念的詮釋,其實必須跟「中國因素」一併思考,由是,我們必須重新討論「殖民主義」的實際意涵。事實上,後殖民並不是簡單的指殖民之後。如何去定義「後殖民」,本身已經是一個問題。

學歷

  • 美國哥倫比亞大學學士(1975)
  • 美國芝加哥大學碩士(1979)
  • 美國芝加哥大學博士(1985)

現職

  • 中央研究院民族學研究所兼任研究員(2019.04.01)

經歷(點擊展開)

  • 中央研究院民族學研究所研究員(1999.06 - 2019.01)
  • 中央研究院民族學研究所助理研究員(1982.12 - 1985.12)
  • 中央研究院民族學研究所副研究員(1986.01 - 1999.06)

研究專長

  • 文化研究、社會理論、歷史變遷、 論述實踐

研究區域

  • 香港、臺灣

著作目錄

專書、論文集 (點擊展開)

2015
From Roots and Routes to Returns: Is There a History of Consciousness Here? (Review Essay on James Clifford’s Returns) boundary 2 42(2). (U.S.)
2014
What the Differences between Taiwan and Hong Kong Studies Reveal about the Differences between Taiwan and Hong Kong Society, Taiwan in Comparative Perspective 5: 152–162. (U.K.)
2013b
Critical Cosmopolitanism in the Emergence of Cultural Modernity: Reflections on Discursive Imagination in Hong Kong and Shanghai, Postcolonial Studies 16(1): 46-65. (U.K.)
2013a
De-Societalizing the School: On the Hegemonic Making of Moral Persons (Citizenship) and its Disciplinary Regimes, Critique of Anthropology 33(2): 146-67. (U.K.)
2012b
Toward a Postcolonial Theory of the State in Singapore, Cultural Studies 26(5): 670-687. (U.S.)
2012a
The Americanization of Pop Culture in Asia? Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 13(4): 495-506. (U.S.)
2011b
From Sinicization to Indigenization in the Social Sciences: Is That All There Is? in Sociology and Anthropology in Twentieth Century China: Between Universalism and Indigenism, ed. Arif Dirlik with Li Guannan and Yen Hsiao-pei, Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong Press, pp. 255-82.
2011a
Nomadic Ethnoscapes in the Changing Global-Local Pop Music Industry: ICRT as IC, in Charismatic Modernity: Popular Culture in Taiwan, ed. Marc L. Moskowitz, London: Routledge, pp. 86-104.
2010
Hong Kong “Identity” after the End of History, in Contemporary Asian Modernities: Transnationality, Interculturality and Hybridity, eds. Chu Yiu-wai and Eva Kit-wah Man, Bern: Peter Lang, pp. 167-90.
2009c
On the Politics of Culture, or the State of the State, in Singapore. (review essay) The Australian Journal of Anthropology 20: 369-78. (Australia)
2009b
On the Geopolitics of Identity, Anthropological Theory 9(3): 331-49. (U.S.)
2009a
Sketching the Discursive Outlines of Cosmopolitan Hybridity in Postwar Hong Kong: City Magazine in the Emergence of 1980s Popular Culture and Culture Industry, Journal of the Hong Kong Sociological Association 4: 189-213. (Hong Kong)
2008
The Postcolonial Alien in Us All: Identity in the Global Division of Intellectual Labor, positions: east asia critique 16(3): 689-710. (U.S.)
2007b
Ethnic Identity in the Politics of the Unreal, Taiwan in Comparative Perspective 1: 76-86.
2007a
What Happened to “Greater China”? Changing Geopolitics in the China Triangle, Macalester International 18: 28-44.
2005b
Writing Theory: Steps toward an Ecology of Practice. Anthropological Theory 5(4):515-541.
2005a
The Moral Cultivation of Citizenship in a Taiwan Middle School. In Education and the Making of Citizenship (Europe, South Asia, China), V. Benei ed. Pp. 57-75. London: Routledge.
2004d
論「國際學術分工」中的「我們」與他們:西歐(研究)到底是指誰(甚麼)?刊於劉紀蕙主編《文化的視覺系統》。 臺北:麥田出版社。(“Us” and “Them” in the Global Division of Intellectual Labor. In The Visual System of Culture, Liu Chi-hui, ed. Taipei: Mai-tian.)
2004c
(co-authored with Jia-lu Cheng) The Growth of Internet Communities in Taiwan and the Marginalization of the Public Sphere. In Globalization and the Humanities: Nation-States, Disciplines, Virtual Worlds, and Emergent Sensibilities, D.L. Li ed., Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, pp. 169-85.
2004b
World Music, Cultural Heteroglossia and Indigenous Capital: Overlapping Frequencies in the Emergence of Cosmopolitanism in Contemporary Taiwan. In Refashioning Pop Music in Asia: Cosmopolitan Flows, Political Tempos and Aesthetic Industries, A.J. Chun, E. Rossiter and B. Shoesmith eds., London: RoutledgeCurzon, pp. 49-60.
2004a
(co-authored with N. Rossiter) Introduction: Cultural Imaginaries, Musical Communities, Reflexive Practices. In Refashioning Pop Music in Asia: Cosmopolitan Flows, Political Tempos and Aesthetic Industries, London: RoutledgeCurzon, pp. 1-14.
2003b
學院的民主化:邁向理性社會的最後關卡。社會理論學報(香港),6卷1期。 (The Democratization of Academia: The Last Barrier to the Emergence of Rational Society. Journal of Social Theory 6[1])
2003a
The Changing Times of a Village Temple Alliance System in the Northern New Territories of Hong Kong: An Analysis of a Tianhou Cult. In 媽祖信仰的發展與變遷,林美容主編,頁57-78。 臺北:臺灣宗教學會 (Development and Change in Mazu Cult Worship. Lin Meirong et al, eds. Pp. 57-78. Taipei: Taiwan Association for Religious Studies).
2002d
Introduction: Global Dissonances (Bringing Class and Culture Back In). Social Analysis: The International Journal of Cultural and Social Practice 46(2):1-10.
2002c
From Culture to Power (and Back): The Many 'Faces' of Mianzi (face), Guanxi (connection), and Renqing (rapport). Suomen Antropologi 27(4):19-37.
2002b
The Coming Crisis of Multiculturalism in "Transnational" Taiwan. Social Analysis: The International Journal of Cultural and Social Practice 46(3). (U.S., Australia)
2002a
Flushing in the Future: The Supermodern Japanese Toilet in a Changing Domestic Culture. The Journal of Postcolonial Studies 5(1). (Australia)
2001e
Editorial: The (Post)nation, or Violence and the Norm. Communal/Plural: Journal of Transnational & Crosscultural Studies 9(1):5-10.
2001d
(co-authored with Shamsul A.B.) Editorial: Other “Routes”: The Critical Challenge for Academia. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 2(2):167-76.
2001c
The Politics and Poetics of Anthropological Area Studies in Postwar Taiwan. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 2(2):221-45. (U.K.)
2001b
Diasporas of Mind, or Why There Ain't No Black Atlantic in Cultural China. Communal/Plural: Journal of Transnational & Crosscultural Studies 9(1): 95-110. (Australia)
2001a
From Text to Context: How Anthropology Makes Its Subject. Cultural Anthropology 15(4):570-95.
2000e
Introduction: (Post)Colonialism and Its Discontents, or the Future of Practice. Cultural Studies 14(3-4):379-84.
2000d
Colonial Govern-Mentality in Transition: Hong Kong as Imperial Subject and Object Cultural Studies 14(3-4):430-61. (U.K.)
2000c
Democracy as Hegemony, Globalization as Indigenization, or the “Culture” in Taiwanese National Politics. Journal of Asian and African Studies 35(1):7-27. (Holland)
2000b
Hong Kong, A Tale of Three Books (and One City) (review article). Australian Journal of Anthropology 11(1):100-108. (Australia)
2000a
The Institutional Unconscious, or the Prison House of Academia. boundary 2 27(1):51-74. (U.S.A.)
1999
解構中國性:論族群意識作為文化作為認同之曖昧不明(Chinese rendition of 1996d) 。臺灣社會研究季刊 33:103-31。
1998
The Culture Industry as National Enterprise: The Politics of Heritage in Contemporary Taiwan (unabridged). From Beijing to Port Moresby: Cultural Policy and National Identity in Asia and the Pacific, V.R. Dominguez and D.Y.H. Wu eds. New York: Gordon and Breach
1996e
From Nationalism to Nationalizing: Cultural Imagination and State Formation in Postwar Taiwan (revised). Chinese Nationalism, pp. 126-47, Jonathan Unger ed. Armonk: M.E. Sharpe.
1996d
Fuck Chineseness: On the Ambiguities of Ethnicity as Culture as Identity. Boundary 223(2):111-38. (U.S.A.)
1996c
The Lineage-Village Complex in Southeastern China: A Long Footnote in the Anthropology of Kinship. Current Anthropology 37(3): 61-95. (U.S.A.)
1996b
由「土著觀點」探討漢人親屬關係。中央研究院民族所集刊 81:1-18.
1996a
Discourses of Identity in the Changing Spaces of Public Culture in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Theory Culture & Society 13(1):51-75. (U.K.)
1995b
論東方人的東方論:從戰後傳統文化的建構看現代的弔詭 (Chinese rendition of 1995a)。當代 108:86-99;109:106-18。再版於其跡背後:解構東亞現代化,羅金義 、王張偉合編,1997。香港:牛津大學出版社。
1995a
An Oriental Orientalism: The Paradox of Tradition and Modernity in Nationalist Taiwan. History and Anthropology 9(1): 27-56. (U.K.)
1994b
The Culture Industry as National Enterprise: The Politics of Heritage in Contemporary Taiwan (abridged). Culture and Policy, 5: 69-89. (Australia)
1994a
From Nationalism to Nationalizing: Cultural Imagination and State Formation in Postwar Taiwan. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 31: 49-69. (Australia)
1993
From the Historical Unconscious to the Imagined Community: The Unfinished Revolution in Nationalist Taiwan. Shisoo 思想 823: 108-26. (Japanese translation)
1992
The Practice of Tradition in the Writing of Custom, or Chinese Marriage from Li to Su. Late Imperial China 13(2):82-122. (U.S.)
1991
La Terra Trema: The Crisis of Kinship and Community in the New Territories of Hong Kong Before and After "The Great Transformation". Dialectical Anthropology 16(3-4):309-29. (U.S., Holland)
1990b
Policing Society: The "Rational" Practice of British Colonial Land Administration in the New Territories of Hong Kong, c.1900. The Journal of Historical Sociology 3(4):401-22. (U.K., Canada)
1990a
Conceptions of Kinship and Kingship in Classical Chou China. T'oung Pao 76(1-3):16-48. (France, Holland)
1989b
Pariah Capitalism and the Overseas Chinese of Southeast Asia: Problems in the Definition of the Problem. Ethnic and Racial Studies 12(2):233-56.
1989a
Being and Nothingness in Chinese Kinship: Three Meta-Studies. Reviews in Anthropology 15(2): 69-80. (U.S.) (appeared in 1990)
1988
Is There a Structure of Chinese Society? Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 28: 240-61. (Hong Kong) (appeared in 1990)
1987
國內知識界的「當代」。思與言 24(5):550-55.
1986
香港新界在二十世紀的土地革命 。中央研究院民族所集刊 61:1-40.
1984b
「賭」與香港社會。中國論壇 19(2):35-37.
1984a
重新思考 Lineage Theory 與中國社會。漢學研究 2(2):403-446.
1983
The Meaning of Crisis and the Crisis of Meaning in History: A Critical Interpretation of the Sino-British Opium War. Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica 55:169-228. (Taiwan)
1980
Slavery as a Mode of Exchange among the Kwakiutl Indians of the Northwest Coast. Chicago Anthropological Exchange 13(1):4-29. (U.S.)

研究/計畫報告 (點擊展開)

2012
Book Review of David Y.H. Wu and Sidney Cheung eds., 2002, The Globalization of Chinese Food, in Bijiao: China in Comparative Perspective 2: 1-3.
2011
Ethnoscapes, in Blackwell Encyclopedia of Globalization, ed. George Ritzer.
2008
"西方流行音樂文化的全球化及本土化過程:台灣ICRT收音電台的歷史人類學個案分析"國科會專題計畫結案報告。
2006
Book Review of Steve Tsang, 2004, A Modern History of Hong Kong: 1841-1997, London: I.B. Tauris. In East Asia: An International Quarterly 23(1):86-88.
2005b
Book Review of K.C. Ho, R. Kluver & C.C. Yang eds., 2003, Asia.com: Asia Encounters the Internet, London: RoutledgeCurzon. In Cyberculture Studies (September).
2005a
Book Review of Arif Dirlik and Zhang Xudong (eds.), 2000, Postmodernism and China, Durham: Duke University Press. Theory Culture and Society 22(2):141-144.
2003
Book Review of Thomas Gold et al eds., 2002, Social Connections in China: Institutions, Culture, and the Changing Nature of Guanxi, Cambridge University Press. In Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 67(1):228-230.
2002
Book Review of Nirmala S. PuruShotam, 1998, Negotiating Language, Constructing Race: Disciplining Difference in Singapore, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. In The Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science .
2001
(全球化與文化差異:對於跨文化知識狀況的思考,孫歌著,陳奕麟譯) Globalization and Cultural Difference: Thoughts on the Situation of Trans-Cultural Knowledge. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies 2(2):261-275.
1998
Book review of Aihwa Ong and Donald M. Nonini eds., 1996, , New York: Routledge. American Journal of Sociology 103(5):14Ungrounded Empires: The Cultural Politics of Modern Chinese Transnationalism 50-53.
1997
Book review of David Faure and Helen F. Siu eds., 1996, Down to Earth: The Territorial Bond in South China, Cambridge University Press, In China Information XI(2-3):232-234.

學術會議(研討會)論文 (點擊展開)

2014b
From Roots and Routes to Returns: Anthropological Circuity in the Work of James Clifford. Paper given at International Sociological Association Meeting, Yokohama, July 13-19.
2014a
Rethinking the ‘Legacy’ of Heritage in the Politics of the Changing Nation-State: A Contrarian Perspective. Paper given at “State Policy and the Cultural Politics of Heritage-Making in East and Southeast Asia”, National University of Singapore, January 16-17.
2013
Critical Cosmopolitanism in the Advent of Cultural Modernity: Reflections on Discursive Imagination in Hong Kong and Shanghai. Paper given at Inter-Asia Cultural Studies Conference “Beyond the Culture Industry”, National University of Singapore, July 3-5.
2012b
Assessing the Relevance of “Post-colonial” Theory to Hong Kong Society, Past and Present. Paper given at “From a British to a Chinese Colony? Hong Kong Society in the Past and Today” Conference, St. Antonys College, Oxford University, December 1
2012a
Beyond the Prisonhouse of Knowledge: A Return to the Archaeology of Discourse. Paper given at International Sociological Association RC16-Social Theory Midterm Conference, Cultures and Civilizations in the Contemporary World, Trento, Italy, June 27-29.
2011
The Legacy of Three Principles Education (三民主義教育) in Taiwan. Paper given at the Rethinking the Chinese Revolution: 1911 in Global Perspective Conference, University of Hawaii, February 29-30.
2010b
The Japanese Diaspora in Postwar Taiwan: Narrating and Interpreting the Experiences of a Silent Minority. Paper given at Topics in Critical Theory Conference, sponsored by boundary 2 and School of English, Hong Kong University, June 17-19.
2010a
Toward a Postcolonial Theory of the State. Paper given at the International Workshop on Colonial Modernity and Beyond: East Asian Context, Division of English, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, March 12-13.
2009b
From Sinicization to Indigenization in the Social Sciences: Is That All There Is? Paper given at The Formation and Development of Academic Disciplines in China Conference, International Program in Chinese Studies, Chinese University of Hong Kong, July 9-11.
2009a
The Americanization of Pop Culture in Asia? Paper given at Conference on American Pop Culture in Asia, Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore, February 19-20
2008d
Can the Postcolonial Speak (in Sociological Theory)?, paper given at the International Sociological Association Midterm Conference, Sociological Theory Research Committee (RC16), Pusan National University, South Korea, June 23-25, 2008.
2008c
" The Unthinkable—Thinking Beyond the Limits of Culture ", 不可思議—試探文化想像的境界國際學術會議,中央研究院民族學研究所,12/13-14.
2008b
"From Sinicization to Indigenization in the Social Sciences: Is That All There Is?", Formation and Development of Academic Disciplines in 20th Century China Conference, 北京中央民族大., 10/30-11/2.
2008a
"Nomadic Ethnoscapes in the Changing Global-Local Pop Music Industry: ICRT as IC", Charismatic Modernity: Popular Culture in Taiwan Conference, University of South Carolina, 10/4-5.
2007e
From Culture to Culturalism: Some Muddles in the Model. Paper for Roundtable Forum on “Being ‘Chinese’ Outside China: Problems of Research and Analysis”, Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore, October 9.
2007d
Ethnicity in the Politics of the Unreal. Paper presented for panel on Re-Inventing Asianness, IIAS 5th Biennial International Convention of Asia Scholars, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, August 2-5.
2007c
The Glocal Future of Western Language Pop Music Radio in Taiwan. Paper given at Theory Culture & Society 25th Anniversary Conference, Ubiquitous Media: Asian Transformations, University of Tokyo, Japan, July 13-16.
2007b
Ethnography in the Anthropology of the Unreal. Paper presented at The Future of Ethnographic Practices Conference, Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, June 2-3.
2007a
Identity as Geopolitical Process: Discursive Origins of Cosmopolitanism in Hong Kong. Paper presented at Conference on Cosmopolitanism: Thinking Beyond the Nation, Florida State University, February 1-4.
2006e
What Happened to “Greater China”? Changing Geopolitics in the China Triangle, paper for The New Ties That Bind Conference, University of South Carolina, November 10-12.
2006d
On the Geopolitics of Identity. Paper presented at Culture in Context: Pragmatics, Industries, Technologies, Geopolitics Conference, Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica, Sept. 16-17, 2006.
2006c
On the Geopolitics of Identity. Paper presented at International Symposium on Contemporary Asian Modernities, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, September 9-10.
2006b
The Alien in Us All: Illusions of Ethnicization in the Global Division of Intellectual Labor. Paper presented at boundary 2 Conference on Thinking Common Problems: A Literary Critical Symposium, Hong Kong University, Hong Kong, June 13.
2006a
Changing Transnational Spaces of Western Pop Music Culture in Taiwan. Paper presented at panel on Cultural Perspectives on “Global” Taiwan, Second Annual Conference for the International Association for the Study of Environment, Space and Place, Towson University, Towson, MD, April 29.
2005b
Ethnicity in the Politics of the Unreal. Paper for panel on Anthropological Complicity and State Making, American Anthropological Association Annual Meeting, December 3.
2005a
Hong Kong Identity after the End of "History". Paper presented at the Bernard S. Cohn Memorial Conference, Anthropology Department, University of Chicago, May 13-14.
2003
Writing Theory: Steps toward an Ecology of Practice. Paper presented at Blurred Boundaries: Rethinking Culture in the Context of Interdisciplinary Practice. Instititute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, December 13-14.
2002
The Disciplinary Divide: Is There a Bottom Line in Cultural Studies? Paper presented at the Conference Cultural Returns: Assessing the Place of Culture in Social Thought, Pavis Centre for Social and Cultural Research, The Open University, U.K., September 18-20.
2001d
The Moral Cultivation of Citizenship in a Taiwan Middle School. Paper presented at the Conference Manufacturing Citizenship, St Antonys College, Oxford University, July 6-7.
2001c
Hong Kong “Identity” after the End of History. Paper presented at the Conference After the End: Hong Kong Culture after 1997, University of California, Los Angeles, Center for Transnational and Transcolonial Studies, May 25-26.
2001b
Open Economies and Closed Minds: The Coming Crisis of Multiculturalism in “Transnational” Taiwan. Paper presented at the Conference on Migration Between States and Markets, International Sociological Association Meeting, Liege, Belgium, May 17-19.
2001a
The Facts and Fictions of Multiculturalism in Contemporary Taiwan. Paper presented at the Conference on Asia, Europe, and Global Processes: Economic, Cultural and Normative Dimensions, National University of Singapore, March 14-16.
2000
Grand Illusion: The Long History of Multiculturalism in Taiwan in an Era of Invented Indigenization. Paper presented at the Conference on Remapping Taiwan: Histories and Cultures in the Context of Globalization, University of California, Los Angeles, October 12-15.
1999
(with Jia-lu Cheng) The Growth of Internet Communities in Taiwan and the Marginalization of the Public Sphere. Paper presented at the Conference on Turn-of-the-Century China, Center of Humanities, University of California, Santa Barbara, February 19-21.
1998
Flushing in the Future: The Postmodern Japanese Toilet in the Changing Spaces of Domestic Culture. Paper presented at the Conference on New Cultural Imaginaries: The Fourth International Symposium on Cultural Criticism, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, January 5-9.
1997d
The Dissemination and Institutionalization of Knowledge/Information: Problems in Communication Infrastructure. Paper presented at Cultural and Communications Policy in the Asian Region: Research Agendas Workshop. Organized by Griffith University Australian Key Centre for Culture and Media Policy, in Singapore, September 4-5.
1997c
From Text to Context: The Production and Reproduction of Anthropological Area Studies in Postwar Taiwan. Paper presented at Conference on The Future of Anthropology in South China, Anthropology Department, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, June 10-11.
1997b
Problems of Teaching Socio-Cultural Theory/Research in a Taiwan Setting. Paper presented at Conference on Teaching Social Sciences in East Asia, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, University of Macau, Macau, May 2-3.
1997a
World Music, Cultural Heteroglossia and Indigenous Capital. Paper presented at Conference of the Society for the Study of Multi-Ethnic Literature in the United States (MELUS), Honolulu, Hawaii, April 18-20.
1996d
Colonial Governmentality as Mentalité: The Changing Utopianism of British Colonialism in Hong Kong. Paper presented at Conference on Colonialism, Nationalism and Modernity in East Asia, Center for Cultural Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz, October 11-12.
1996c
Cosmopolitanism and Countertalk in an Emerging Discursive Public: The Semantics and Pragmatics of Two Kinds of Transnational Media in Taiwan. Paper presented at Conference on Transnational Publics and Civil Society in the Asia-Pacific, University of California, Berkeley, June 28-30.
1996b
Cosmopolitanism as Indigenizing Process: The Changing Popular Culture of International Community Radio Taipei (I.C.R.T.). Paper presented at Symposium on Culture, Media and Society in Present-Day Taiwan, John K. Fairbank Center for East Asian Studies, Harvard University, June 10-16.
1996a
Discoursing Chineseness: On the Ambiguities of Ethnicity as Culture as Identity. The Second International Symposium on Cultural Criticism, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, January 2-6.
1995
To Be or Not to Be Chinese: Contradictions of Ethnicity in Postwar Hong Kong. Paper presented at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, April 6-9.
1994b
The Lineage-Village Complex in Southeastern China (A Long Footnote in the Anthropology of Kinship). Paper read at The Interdisciplinary Forum on the Anthropology of China, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, May 27.
1994a
Ethnic Consciousness, Cultural Discourse and National Identity, or Three Takes on Chineseness. Paper presented at Conference on Nationalities, Ethnicities and Identities, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC, July 7-9.
1993d
Discourses of Identity in the Politics of the Modern Nation-State. Paper given at Conference on Post-Colonial Formations: Nation, Culture, Policy, Centre for Cultural Policy Studies, Griffith University, QLD, July 7-10.
1993c
Traditional Chinese Kinship "From the Native's Point of View". Paper given at Symposium on Kinship Studies, Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, June 4.
1993b
The Changing Politics of Culture in Postwar Taiwan. Paper given at Friedrich Neumann Stiftung Conference on Transition to Democracy in Asia, Phuket, Thailand, May 28-31.
1993a
An Oriental Orientalism: The Paradox of Tradition in the Writing of Taiwan's National Self. Paper given at Conference on The Subject of China, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA, January 21-23.
1992b
The Work of Tradition and the Logic of Cultural Construction in Modern Taiwan. Paper written for Symposium on Cultural Policy and National Identity in Asia and the Pacific, East-West Center, Hawaii, June 15-21.
1992a
From the Historical Unconscious to the Imagined Community: The Unfinished Revolution in Nationalist Taiwan. Paper given at Conference on Nationalism Today, Osaka University, Japan, March 18-21.
1991c
The Cultural Consequences of Depoliticizing Moral Education in Post-Modern Taiwan. Paper given at University of Virginia Conference on Chinese Education in the 21st Century, Honolulu, Hawaii, November 19-21.
1990b
Rewriting the Sacred: Textual Authority in the Construction of Local Ritual Traditions. Paper presented at the Society for the Study of Chinese Religion, Association for Asian Studies Meeting, Chicago, IL, April 6-8.
1990a
The Writing of Custom in the Practice of Tradition: The Meaning of Rites in Local Etiquette Handbooks. ACLS‑SSRC Joint Conference on the Scriptures of Chinese Popular Religion, Bodega Bay, CA, January 3-6.
1989
The High and the Low, the Seen and the Unseen: Local Reflections on the Moral Practice of Chinese Kinship. Meeting of the Association for Asian Studies, Washington, D.C., March 19-21.
1987
The Ch'ing Tribute System as Guest Ritual: A Preliminary Description. The Second International Conference on Sinology, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, Taiwan, December 27‑30. (Proceedings published in 1989)

研究旨趣(點擊展開)

本人於完成博士論文後。近年來,一方面在探討該論文中一些仍未解決的關鍵, 努力就論文中理論、哲學、歷史及親屬方面的論點做更深入之分析,以發揮其原來之基本想法,並陸續發表於不同之國際期刊。這些研究工作直到去年我的專書的完成後才暫告一段落。該本專書是本人近十年來的研究成果。在理論上,本書有兩個主要關切重點,一是探討英國在香港新界的殖民統治對土地和當地社會的影響;另一則在探討戰後全球資本主義脈絡中,殖民政府施政的轉變對歷史學家和社會科學家在有關過去若干事件和社會現象的詮釋上有什麼影響。

另一方面,由於對全球化趨勢與地方文化認同在各個不同的大眾文化場域中所呈現的複雜互動的注意 ,使我近年來逐漸將焦點投注在由網際網路(Internet)所形成的公共領域(public sphere)上。我之所以以公共領域而非公共空間 (public space)來描述這一經由電腦所媒介的社會互動(computer-mediated communication)而形成的場域,主要在於強調該場域本身所具有的社會與文化意涵,而非僅只是一些偶然與隨意的社會交流。簡言之,我視該場域為一社會事實,並企圖探討與研究該社會事實。

中程及長程計畫

戰後本土意識的興起與宗教的角色: 臺灣基督長老教會的個案探討

計畫主持人:陳奕麟

關鍵詞:本土意識、文化認同、 臺灣長老教會

中文摘要:

本研究計畫的主要目的,是要就本土意識及文化認同的研究領域,提出一個宗教面向的考察,藉著戰後作為非本土宗教的 臺灣基督教長老教會,在戰後初期政府去殖民化過程中,其對本土文化與本土意識所扮演的積極性角色,分析臺灣歷史中本土化過程的特殊經驗,以及提出宗教與文化認同間的互動關係,提供 臺灣文化認同研究一個新的視野。

(一)研究計畫之背景及目的:

1.文化認同研究的宗教向度:

文化與身分認同問題,在其他的臺灣社會課題中,如族群問題、政治取向研究、社會衝突、國家認同等等有極密切的關係,在上述課題的個別研究中,也無可避免地要涉及到文化與身分認同的問題。其重要性可見一般。

過去對文化認同問題的探討不外從族群研究(如張茂桂 1993;胡台麗 1990)、土著化(如陳其南 1980)、本土文學(陳昭瑛 1998;陳芳明 2000)、民間宗教(如Rubinstein 1994;Sangren 1998;Weller 1998)或國家的建構(如陳奕麟 1994;盧建榮 2000)等課題作為探討的向度;相對於上述研究對象中,臺灣的基督新教則較少為研究者所注意,即使研究臺灣新教的學者如Raber(1978)、Swanson(1970)、Rubinstein(1991)等亦不曾從文化認同的角度觀察戰後 臺灣新教教派間的差別,研究者往往因為其西方外來宗教的外表,較不會將之關連於本土文化認同的研究中。

然而,新教在臺灣發展的經過,正好為臺灣文化認同問題的研究,提出了一個宗教向度的視野。以 臺灣長老教會為例,她在日據時代前已經在臺設教,所以到了戒嚴時代,因為黨禁及民間結社的限制,在 臺灣社會中她成為了國民黨以外最大的組織。不但如此,在當時臺灣社會除了官方組織外與國際社會的聯繫可說非常微弱, 臺灣長老會卻與此相反,她不但是世界改革宗教會 (World Alliance of Reformed Churches) 的成員,更與普世教協 (World Churches Council) 有密切的聯繫,這些背景使她更具世界視野。與此同時,因為其設教歷史較早,又加上使用較早期移居 臺灣族群的閩南語系作為崇拜及教會活動語言,所以成員結構自然以較早移民至臺灣的族群為主。

2.基督新教與戰後臺灣本土意識的興起:長老教會的案例

一九四九年後遷臺初至戒嚴時期政府的去殖民化政策中,連帶對本土文化政府亦採取壓抑的態度, 臺灣長老教會及其屬下的教育機構,一直擔任本土文化的保持者的角色,如神學院的教育使用閩南語,在當時少有的 臺灣史課程等。在後來官方中國化國家身分的建構中,臺灣長老教會也一直是不加掩飾地在其神學中表達初她的 臺灣意識。

與臺灣長老教會的極不一樣的是一九四九年後遷臺的「泛國語系統教會」,她們包括了四九年後來 臺的建制性的教會(institutional churches)如衛理宗、信義宗等教派,以及受到反對宗派的「小群」教會衍生的國語禮拜堂系統。前者因資源不足的緣故,很快地被後者所「小群化」了。因此在神學上她們同時向由二○年代由美國教會界所產生的基要主義的思想靠攏,她們並不關心所謂本土化的問題,對社會關懷亦不熱切,她們要求的是一個純粹合乎聖經,不受文化因素影響的信仰,本土文化的關懷僅是宣教上工具性的靠量;同時這個信仰對現世是採取否定的態度,她們與國際的組織來往並不密切,對國際社會或普世教會的認識,僅從北美奮興主義傳統或基要主義背景的差會宣教士所提供的訊息。此外,成員中有許多是隨從國民政府遷 臺的公務員,所以她們較服從政府的立場。「泛國語系統教會」正好提供了一個與臺灣長老教會對比的研究對象。

上述臺灣長老教會會友在文化身分認同上多是採本土文化認同的傾向,與其國際的連結有密切的關係,國際的關係是她們在神學及社會實踐時採本土化的重要因素。而泛國語教會系統會友對本土的疏離,也正是與她們對其傳統及國際教會社會的疏離有關。在社會行動背後的神學理念中, 臺灣長老教會所建構的本土神學,啟迪於國際教會界神學的反省(特別是解放神學);泛國語教會所追求的一個不受文化影響的信仰理念,卻信仰實踐的指導卻表現為最具中國民間傳統價值取向的倫理教導。

所以從這兩個在臺的發展的新教所呈現的其複雜性,為我們提供了一個宗教與文化認同學術性研究的素材,在基本資料建立與研究分析後,可為我們進一步觀察宗教與身分認同的關係。

(二)研究方法、進行步驟及執行進度

本計畫的旨在透過對兩個新教教派的資料建立,及個案比較的研究,嘗試分析同為新教傳統的兩個教派在戰後的 臺灣,其文化身分認同的形塑過程,並進而探討文化認同建構過程的宗教或信仰因素。

所以本計畫分兩年進行,2003年以相關文獻資料的收集,及實際的田野調查工作為主。透過文獻資料的建立了解這兩個教派在這後對本土意識的差異現象的歷史背景。透過深度的訪談的田野工作,可了解教會與當地居民的關係及其在當地所扮演的角色。

2004年在上述資料收集的基礎上,作進一步的分析,長老教會各種公開的宣言及宗教倫理、神學內容的與社會變遷的關連。進而考察他們與本土意識興起的之間互動的關係。

2003年在建立基本資料的建立方面,主要以長老教會臺北、臺南兩大中會下的教會及其屬下教育機構相關歷史的收集為主,此外我們亦考察英國國家檔案館所收藏了過去英國淡水領事館的教務資料,來觀察長老會在戰前、戰後,宣教士與本地教務人員等與政府間的關係的比較。田野工作方面,主要從事於人物的深入訪談來口述歷史資料,採訪對象分為經歷過日據時代的教會領袖,及經歷過七○年代與政府對抗時期的領袖等。此外,在 臺北及臺南地區,我們選擇特定教會作田野的實地考察,觀察其與當地社群的關係。

至於與長老教會作比較研究的「泛國語教會系統」方面,由於她們的檔案儲存並不理想,所以口述歷史的重建就佔很重要的份量,我們將對第一代來 臺或第一代參與創教者將採取有系統的口述訪談。此外,收集相關的傳教資料,如第一代教會領袖的講章記錄、並該系統教會的社會參與記錄與剪報等。

透過上述資料的建立,2004年將集中於分析研究,本計畫主持人陳奕麟先生將從文化認同、協同主持人宋錦秀女士將從宗教研究以及研究助理龐君華先生將從宗教倫理與神學等角色作綜合的討論及整理出戰後 臺灣本土意識的興起與宗教之間的關係。

(三)預期完成之工作項目及具體成果

在本申請計畫執行第一年,若照上述進路的完成後,預期可以建立一個基督新教個案在 臺灣發展的基本資料檔案,其中除了文獻資料外,亦包括了經歷過戰前的長老教會領袖及信徒的口述資料以及戰後來 臺的新教領袖的口述歷史資料。

第二年除了補充部份田野資料外,更可透過參與的工作人員,就不同的學域及研究經驗(本計畫主持人陳奕麟先生將從文化認同、協同主持人宋錦秀女士將從宗教研究以及研究助理龐君華先生將從宗教倫理與神學)就基本資料進行分析及研討,相信不但對於參與者本身原有的研究可以提出一個新的經驗,更可充實本計畫中的研究主題。

本計畫完成後,計畫參與者可據此一研究的成果發表專文或專書,將為本國本土意識興起及文化認同等課題,提供一個宗教的角度的觀察,特別是透過此一「非本土宗教」與本土意識及文化認同的互動關係研究可以進一步呈現出此一課題的複雜性。本計畫中的口述歷史資料,更可為戰後初期 臺灣歷史及社會研究提供一個新的史料。

目前臺灣各大學正紛紛成立宗教學系所,本計畫正好提出一個與臺灣歷史、社會、文化關連宗教研究的成果。

再者,本計畫研究的成果,可為臺灣本土或歷史研究提供新的相關文獻資料。並且可以在國際泛文化的研究中呈現出 臺灣文化認同過程的特色,可充實「臺灣經驗」的特殊內涵。

Reference Works:

胡台麗
1990    芋仔與蕃薯─臺灣「榮民」的族群關係與認同。中央研究院民族學研究所集刊 69:107-132。

張茂桂等
1993    族群關係與國家認同。智庫叢書38。臺北:智庫。

陳其南
1980    清代臺灣社會的結構。 中央研究院民族學研究所集刊 49:115-147。

陳芳明
2000    後現代或後殖民─戰後臺灣文學史的一個解釋。刊於書寫臺灣,周英雄、劉紀蕙編。臺北:麥田。

陳昭瑛
1998    臺灣本土文學與本土化運動。臺北:正中書局。

盧建榮
2000    分裂的國族認同1975-1997。臺北市:麥田出版。

Chun, Allen  陳奕麟
1994a   An Oriental Orientalism: The Paradox of Tradition and Modernity in Nationalist Taiwan. History and Anthropology 8(4):1-29.
1994b   From Nationalism to Nationalizing: Cultural Imagination and State Formation in Postwar Taiwan. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs:46-69.
1996    Discourse of Identity in the Changing Spaces of Public Culture in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore. Theory Culture & Society 13(1):51-75.
2000    Democracy as Hegemony, Globalization as Indigenization, or the "Culture"  in Taiwanese National Politics. Journal of Asian and African Studies 35(1):7-27.

Raber, Dorothy A.
1978    Protestantism in Changing Taiwan: A Call to Creative Response. South Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library.

Rubinstein, Murray A.
1991    The Protestant Community on Modern Taiwan: Mission, Seminary, and Church. London: M. E. Sharpe.
1994    The Revival of the Mazu Cult and of Taiwanese Pilgrimage to Fujian. Cambridge, Mass.: Fairbank Center for East Asian Research, Harvard University.

Sangren, P. Steven
1995    Anthropology and Identity Politics in Taiwan: The Relevance of Local Religion. Cambridge, Mass.: Fairbank Center for East Asian Research, Harvard University.

Swanson Allen J.
1986    Mending the Nets: Taiwan Church Growth and Loss in the 1980s'. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library.

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