您的瀏覽器不支援JavaScript語法,但是並不影響您獲取本網站的內容。
:::
字級: 小字級 中字級 大字級 | 分享:

中央研究院主題研究計畫

亞洲季風區高地與低地的社會文化

主持人及參與人員計劃執行期間
蔣 斌 87.7.1~90.6.30

計畫簡介 中文

中央研究院主題研究計劃

《亞洲季風區高地與低地的社會與文化》

Upland and Lowland Cultures and Societies of Monsoon Asia

計劃簡介:

《亞洲季風區高地與低地的社會與文化》係中央研究院自一九九八年七月起進行之新增主題研究計劃之一,第一期預定進行三年,由中央研究院民族學研究所以及國立清華大學人類學研究所共同執行。計劃主旨在依據下列理論與區域的關照,對區域內個別族群進行深入的民族誌研究:
1.區域內個別族群對於季風影響下時間律動與季節更替的文化認知與實踐。
2.個別族群在季風與地形的環境中形成的社會文化生產與再生產關係。
3.區域內的跨族群交換、交易與聯姻模式。
4.高地與低地族群在社會階序、王權與國家形成、宗教變遷方面的不同歷史過程及
其社會文化意涵。
本計劃第一年包括四個子計劃,各子計劃摘要如後。除各子計劃之執行外,本計劃將不定期舉辦學術研討會、邀訪國際學者,並接受清華大學人類學研究所研究生之海外田野獎助申請。
詳情可洽詢:
網址(WebSite):ttp://www.sinica.edu.tw/ioe/dynamic/open/
電子信箱(E-Mail):monsoon@gate.sinica.edu.tw

子計劃一:《 進口珍品與社會階序:砂勞越Baram 河流域的內陸與海岸族群 》

主持人:蔣 斌  中央研究院民族學研究所/國立清華大學人類學研究所

本計劃的主旨在進行砂勞越Baram河流域的內陸與下游、沿海族群間的互動關係的田野研究,藉以探討區域貿易體系與社會階序形成之間的關係。BaramR.為砂勞越東北部第四區的主要河川,下游由馬來人(Malay)及馬來化的Kedayan等依賴水田稻作的民族居住,中、上游則有Kayan、Kenyah等社會階序嚴格、居住長屋的山田燒墾民族,以及以游群(band)為單位,實行游獵採集的Punan族群居住。長久以來,中上游以及下游的族群之間,存在著活躍的貿易與交換的關係。Kayan-Kenyah籐民族由Punan族獲得叢林產品(如燕窩、猴棗、犀鳥、等)的供應,與下游沿海的族群交易,再由沿海族群處進口銅器、琉璃珠、陶瓷器等珍品海(valuables)。不論是出口品或進口品,都透過沿的族群,連接到自從西元十世紀起便形成的包括廣州、麻六甲、加爾各答以及開羅在內的海洋貿易體系之上。Kayan-Kenyah族群有高度制度化的社會階序系統,貴族透過與Punan人建立的「主/雇」關係,以及與中、下游跨部落、跨族群其他領導階層之間的婚姻與儀式交換關係,在內陸的貿易體系中佔有樞紐的地位。另一方面,進口的珍品,主要被使用在Kayan-Kenyah貴族階層的生命儀禮中尤其是婚禮與喪禮。這些生命儀禮是社會(包括社會階序體系)再生產的主要機制。在這個脈絡中,本研究將著重在下列現象的描述與理解:(一)進口珍品如何在跨族群貿易或交換網絡中經歷商品(commodity)與禮物(gift)的不同階段;(二)進口珍品如何在不同族群的文化邏輯中被認知而產生價值;(三)進口珍品如何被納入不同族群與人觀建構、社會再生產相關的儀禮的邏輯中,而完成儀禮所欲達到的目的。

子計劃二:《 雲貴高原的親屬與經濟 》

主持人:魏捷玆  國立清華大學人類學研究所

協同主持人:莊英章 國立清華大學人類學研究所 / 中央研究院民族學研究所

個理論對於我們了解性別與商品間相互性議題的重要性。本計劃的設計是一個由台灣、大陸及國際學者共同參與的計劃。筆者企圖通過如此的合作將國際人類學近年來所發展出來的有關親屬與經濟彼此構成的觀點帶進此區域的研究當中,並預期通過此區域的研究而對人類學親屬研究的重塑有所貢獻。

子計劃三:《文化合成:台灣平埔族群、華南畬族群與漢文化互動的比較研究 》

主持人 : 潘英海   中央研究院民族學研究所

本研究是一為期三年之研究計畫,是接續本人過去七年(1989-1996)參與二項計畫的研究成果,進一步推展而成的區域比較計畫。其中一項是由美國史丹福大學人類學系教授武雅士與本研究所同仁李亦園與莊英章兩位先生所主持的「AcomparativeEthnographicsurveyofTaiwanandFukienProvinces」,經費來自美國魯斯基金會(1989-1992);另一項是由本院支助的主題研究計畫「臺灣、華南與東南亞社會文化比較研究」,亦由李、莊兩位先生主持。本人在參與二項計畫中,主要關心的課題是臺灣南部、東部西拉雅平埔族群與漢文化互動、遷徙與文化傳播的過程。在該二項計畫中,本人先後完成臺灣南部、東部有關西拉雅祀壺習俗的分佈與儀式過程的普查工作,是項工作後來亦配合臺灣省文獻委員之「臺灣原住民史」之計畫。在本人參與這三項研究計畫的過程中,除了實際田野工作、文獻收集與普查訪問外,本人最關心是如何解釋地方性(或說區域性)的文化差異,以及在地化(西拉雅文化)與漢文化之間的互動與合成。本人先後發表有關「文化合成」、「在地觀點」、「文化識能」等理論探索之論文,企圖對文化理論、族群互動、社群意識等方面提出瞭解。
有關文化接觸與族群互動,在人類學的理論中,從早期的功能結構論、文化傳播論、多元文化論,到當代後現代理論中所討論的後殖民主義與culturalhybridity都有所論述。因此,本研究計畫在理論方面的對話將放在此一脈絡中論述。另外,臺灣本土學術圈討論的祭祀圈、信仰圈與地域組織,考古學中有關文化相互作用圈的理論,亦為本研究在理論方面產生對話的對象。由於本人在過去的研究中,有機會至福建進行初步畬族的普查工作,因此在本計畫中將以福建畬族與漢文化互動的過程為主要研究的對象,期望在未來三年中完成福建有關畬族與漢文化互動的區域性普查工作(共計十六個鄉鎮),然後將此研究成果與台灣的研究資料進行比較研究。其主要目的除了資料的收集與建構之外,並擬進一步深入從理論、知識論的角度發展出完整的「地方文化」理論。

子計劃四 :《交換、生命儀禮與人觀:中國西南族群區域研究》

主持人:何翠萍  中央研究院民族學研究所

《交換、生命儀禮與人觀-中國西南族群區域研究》計劃的目的是為探討中國西南族群作為一個人類學區域的可能性及特性。此計劃將與雲南及國際研究中國西南族群的學者合作對此區域進行深入而廣泛的探討;同時藉此計劃培育清華大學社人所人類學組碩、博士研究生對中國西南族群之研究。通過此計劃,筆者企圖與國際人類學在大陸東南亞及島嶼東南亞既有的有關親屬及階序形成的理論有所對話。筆者以為唯有在累積了有相當深度民族誌材料鋪陳的文章之後,才有可能達成此目的,而人類學對人觀的探討,即是最富潛力的切入點之一。
人觀研究是探討文化如何建構不同的社會行動者的研究,是正視研究對象「土著觀點」,探討其在人觀建構上文化內在邏輯的研究。本計劃將探討個別文化的生命儀禮及其交換在其人觀形塑上所扮演的角色。筆者以為生命儀禮的本質是人群通過儀式展演的方式來定義生命、超越個體而創造社會的最重要的設計。作為一種展演,它展現了這個文化中代表不同意識形態的力量建構此文化「人觀」的過程。儀禮物在生命儀禮中的交換或使用,不但代表社會關係的創造更代表社會關係的相互消長(obviation),同時更與「物」在整個社會經濟層面上的意義息息相關。

計畫簡介 英文

Upland and Lowland Cultures and Societies

of Monsoon Asia

"Upland and Lowland Cultures and Societies of Monsoon Asia" is a three-year research project sponsored by Academia Sinica which starts on July, 1998. Jointly conducted bythe Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica, and the Graduate Institute of Anthropology, National Tsing Hua University, this project aims at enrichment of anthropological understandings of peoples under direct and regular influence of the Asian Monsoon. The project sponsors fieldwork-based ethnographic studies of either single societies or multiple interacting communities to better understand the following specific conceptual and regional issues:
1.Cultural representations of time and seasonality and their related social practices;
2.Socio-cultural production and reproduction in a culturally encoded temporal and topographical milieu;
3.Patterns of inter-community, inter-ethnic and inter-regional trade, exchange, and alliance in a culturally encoded temporal and topographical milieu;
4.Cultural and historical unity and diversity between upland and lowland societies in terms of religious change and the formation of social hierarchy, kingship, and state.
In addition to four focal sub-projects conducted by their respective principal researchers, the project also sponsors post-doctoral fellowship programs, short-term visiting scholars, workshop, and occasional lectures. For more information, please contact:
WWW Site: http://www.sinica.edu.tw/ioe/dynamic/open/
E-mail: monsoon@gate.sinica.edu.tw

Sub-Project One

Imported Valuables and Social Hierarchy:the Interior and Coastal Ethnic Groups of the Baram River, Sarawak
Principal Researcher: Chiang, Bien
This is a study of the relationship between regional exchange system and the formation and reproduction of social hierarchy. The ethnographic loci are the upstream and downstream "Dayak" communities of the Baram River, Sarawak.
The Baram is the major river of the Fourth Division of Sarawak. The wet rice farming Malay and the "Malayized" Kedayan live in the coastal and downstream area, while the shifting cultivators such as the Kayan and the Kenyah and the nomadic Punan inhabit the middle and upper reaches. Like the numerous groups along the other major rivers of Sarawak, there has long been active trading and exchange relationships among the various groups up and down the Baram. The Punan provide the sedentary Kayan-Kenyah groups with forest products (e.g. edible bird-nest, hornbill, rattan and monkey's bezoar). The Kayan-Kenyah peoples then trade these items with coastal groups for imported valuables such as brass, glass beads and ceramics. Through both importation and exportation, this inland trading network is connected to the larger maritime trading network that involves Canton, Malacca, Calcutta and Cairo and has been in operation at least since the Tenth Century.
The Kayan-Kenyah peoples have highly formalized social hierarchies system. The aristocrats are pivotal in the inland trading system. On the one hand, they establish patron/client relations with individual Punan bands and collect forest products from the latter, on the other hand, they engage in inter-longhouse and inter-ethnic exchanges with coastal groups to trade forest products for imported valuables. These imported valuables are then used in major life crisis rituals, which are usually the central mechanism in the reproduction of their social hierarchy. The issues that this research project intents to address are: What is the general picture of this inter-ethnic trade? How is this trading network imbedded in, or contributes to, the formation of the social systems of the various participating groups? What makes these imported material items meaningful and symbolically effective in use as ritual objects? And finally, how is value generated and decided?

Sub-Project Two

Kinship and Economy on the Yun-Gui Plateau
Principal Researcher: James Wilkerson
A collective research project covering eight nationalities along the Yun-Gui Plateau in Southeast China will document and analyze current realities on how kinship and economy are mutually constitutive. Such a project is especially pressing because kinship and economy among these eight nationalities relate to a still unexamined central hypothesis of Claude Levi-Strauss' Elementary Structures of Kinship (1969 [1949]) concerning the breakdown of generalized marital exchanges into restricted or complex marital exchanges and because this hypothesis is central to the complimentary topics of gender and commodities. In being collective, the project will also facilitate the integration of past research, stimulate fresh research, and bring together Taiwan, mainland China, and foreign scholars in such a way so as to contribute to the ongoing reshaping of kinship studies in contemporary anthropological thought.

Sub-Project Three

Cultural hybridity: Interaction between the Han and nonHan
Principal Researcher: Pan, Ing-hai
This project proposes a three-years research on the problem of the interaction between the Han and the non-Han in Taiwan and Fukein. For the last seven years, I
have been engaged in two major projects regarding the comparative and ethnographic studies between Taiwan and Fukien. My focus in these two projects has been on the interaction process and cultural formation of the s-called Siraya People. My theoretical interests gave been upon the local-focal point of view. I have written several articles on the problems of cultural hybridity, cultural interface, cultural-interaction sphere, local-focal point of view. I believe that the interaction between/among different ethnic/social groups is the main mechanism to form and transform a "local culture" or "local cultures". I also believe that the so-called Han-Chinese culture has been formed and transformed through the hybridization process between/among the Han and the non-Han.
In fact, more and more research evidence form different researchers who have conducted researches in Fukien、 Kwangtung areas suggest that the Han culture has been undergoing a process of localization in many different "local areas". Although many anthropologists have studied the problem of cultural contact or acculturation since the establishment of anthropological discipline, the understanding of cultural contact or interaction remains perplexing. Even the contemporary post-modernists can't clarify the dynamics and meanings underlined this old human cultural process.
 
The present research will conduct research on the interaction between the She people and the Han People in Fukien area. Think for my previous area survey in the Southern and Eastern Taiwan, I will do a comparative analysis between the She People and the Siraya people in terms of their interaction cultural process with the Han culture. I believe my research will shed a theoretical understanding on a local-local perspective. I will also touch upon contemporary theoretical issues on the problems of ethnicity, ethnic identity and the emerging new understanding of ethnic theories.

Sub-Project Four

Exchange, Life-Cycle Rituals, and Personhood
Principal Researcher: Ho, Ts'ui-p'ing
The project "Exchange, Life-Cycle Rituals, and Personhood" will examine the extent to which the ethnic groups of southwest China can be treated as an integral and coherent cultural whole. It is especially hoped that such a project will contribute to the ongoing international dialogue about kinship and hierarchy in mainland and insular Southeast Asia. This project will be in cooperation with scholars from Yunnan Province and abroad who specialize on the ethnic groups of Southwest China. At the same time, this project will contribute to the training of MA and PhD students in the Graduate Institute of Anthropology, National Tsing Hua University on research on ethnic groups in Southwest China. An organizing principle of the proposed project will be that in-depth ethnographic descriptions are necessary before it will be possible to establish the cultural distinctiveness of Southwest China as a coherent area. This research on personhood is exactly the study which will result in describing the internal logic of each culture in constructing their concept of person from the natives' point of view.
The project will examine for individual cultures how life cycle rituals and their associated exchanges construct personhood. As rites of transition, life cycle rituals are critical avenues through which social reproduction takes place in terms of how life is defined and transcended. As performances, life cycle rituals expose the processes whereby a culture's "personhood" is created by various ideological means. Life-cycle rituals are integral in modeling across this process of the construction of personhood in such a way that the exchange and use of ritual objects during life cycle rituals is not simply expressive of social relations, but rather transforms those social relations.

TOP